Macular Dystrophy, Autosomal Recessive

Stargardt disease (STGD) / Fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) is the most common autosomal recessive macular dystrophy with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000 individuals. STGD manifests in the first or second decade of life with decreased central vision, progressive bilateral atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and the appearance of orangeyellow flecks distributed in the posterior pole, sometimes extending beyond the vascular arcade. A milder form of the same disorder, fundus flavimaculatus, has a later age at onset, slower progression, and more-widespread distribution of the flecks. Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 40,000 individuals. Most patients experience visual loss, impaired color vision, and a central scotoma early in life. During the initial stage of disease, the fundus may be normal or show fine macular lesions and pallor of the optic disc. In the later stages, the fundus shows pigmentary deposits resembling bone spicules, frequently in the macular area. Cone-rod dystrophy is characterized by more severe cone degeneration, which in the electroretinogram (ERG), is distinguished by more distinctive reduction of the photopic cone bwave amplitude than the scotopic (rod b-wave) amplitude, compared to rod degeneration.

Tests Available

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AAAS, ABCA1, ABCA4, ABCC6, ABCD1, ABHD12, ACBD5, ACO2, ACOX1, ACTB, ACTG1, ACVR1, ACVR2B, ADAM9, ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, ADAMTS18, ADAMTSL4, ADGRV1 (GPR98), ADIPOR1, AGBL1, AGBL5, AGK, AGPS, AHI1, AIPL1, AIRE, AKAP9, ALDH18A1, ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, ALG2, ALG6, ALMS1, ALX1, AMACR, AMT, ANKLE2, ANKS6, ANTXR1, AP3B1, AP3D1, ARL13B, ARL2BP, ARL3, ARL6, ARNT2, ARSB, ARX, ASB10 (GLC1F), ASPA, ASPH, ASRGL1, ATAD3A, ATF4, ATF6, ATIC, ATM, ATOH7, ATP13A2, ATP1A3, ATXN7, B3GALNT2, B3GALTL, B4GAT1, B9D1, B9D2, BBIP1, BBS1, BBS10, BBS12, BBS2, BBS4, BBS5, BBS7, BBS9, BCOR, BCS1L, BEST1, BFSP1, BFSP2, BLOC1S3, BLOC1S6, BMP1, BMP4, BMP7, BRAF, BRIP1, BTD, BUB1B, C10ORF11, C10orf2, C12ORF57, C12ORF65, C1ORF186, C1QTNF5, C21ORF2, C2CD3, C2ORF71, C5orf42, C8ORF37, CA2, CA4, CABP4, CACNA1A, CACNA1F, CACNA1H, CACNA2D4, CANT1, CAPN15, CAPN5, CASK, CAV1, CBS, CC2D2A, CCDC103, CCDC114, CCDC28B, CCDC39, CCDC40, CD320, CD96, CDH23, CDH3, CDHR1, CDKN2A, CDON, CEP164, CEP250, CEP290, CEP41, CEP78, CEP83, CERKL, CFAP57, CHD3, CHD7, CHM, CHMP4B, CHN1, CHRDL1, CHST14, CHST6, CHSY1, CIB2, CISD2, CKAP4, CLCN7, CLDN19, CLN3, CLN5, CLN6, CLN8, CLPB, CLRN1, CLUAP1, CNBP, CNGA1, CNGA3, CNGB1, CNGB3, CNNM4, COL11A1, COL11A2, COL17A1, COL18A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL2A1, COL4A1, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, COL5A1, COL5A2, COL8A2, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COLEC11, COX14, COX6B1, COX7B, CP, CPAMD8, CRB1, CREBBP, CRELD1, CRIPT, CRTAP, CRX, CSPP1, CTC1, CTCF, CTDP1, CTNNA1, CTNS, CTSA, CTSD, CTSF, CWC27, CYP1B1, CYP27A1, CYP4V2, DAG1, DBH, DCDC1, DCN, DDB2, DDX11, DDX58, DFNB31, DHCR7, DHDDS, DHODH, DHX38, DIAPH1, DMD, DNAAF1, DNAAF2, DNAAF3, DNAAF5, DNAH10, DNAH11, DNAH5, DNAH9, DNAI1, DNAI2, DNAJC17, DNAJC19, DNAJC5, DNAL1, DNM2, DOCK6, DPAGT1, DPM1, DRAM2, DSE, DTHD1, DTNBP1, DYNC2H1, EBP, EDN3, EDNRA, EFEMP1, EIF4G1, ELOVL4, ELP4, EMC1, EPG5, EPHA2, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, ERCC8, ESCO2, EVC, EVC2, EXOSC2, EXOSC8, EYA1, EYS, FAM111A, FAM126A, FAM161A, FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FAR1, FASTKD2, FBLN5, FBN2, FBXL4, FIBP, FKBP14, FKRP, FKTN, FLNB, FLVCR1, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXD1, FOXE3, FOXF2, FOXH1, FOXL2, FOXRED1, FRAS1, FREM1, FREM2, FRMD7, FSCN2, FTL, FXN, FYCO1, FZD4, GALE, GALK1, GALNS, GALT, GBA, GBA2, GCNT2, GCSH, GDF1, GDF3, GDF6, GFER, GJA1, GJA8, GJB2, GJB6, GJE1, GLB1, GLDC, GLIS2, GLIS3, GM2A, GMPPA, GMPPB, GNAT1, GNAT2, GNB1, GNB3, GNPAT, GNPTG, GNS, GPC3, GPHN, GPR125, GPR143, GPR179, GRIP1, GRK1, GRM6, GRN, GSN, GSS, GTF2H5, GUCA1A, GUCA1B, GUCY2D, GUSB, HADHA, HADHB, HARS, HCCS, HCN1, HDAC6, HESX1, HEXA, HEXB, HGSNAT, HK1, HLCS, HMCN1, HMGB3, HMX1, HNRNPDL, HOXB1, HPS1, HPS3, HPS4, HPS5, HPS6, HSF4, HYLS1, IARS2, IBA57, IDH3B, IDUA, IFIH1, IFT122, IFT140, IFT172, IFT27, IFT43, IFT52, IFT74, IFT80, IFT81, IFT88, IGBP1, IGFBP7, IMPDH1, IMPG1, IMPG2, INPP5E, INVS, IQCB1, IRX1, ISCA2, ISPD, ITM2B, ITPR1, JAG1, JAM3, KAT6B, KCNJ13, KCNJ3, KCNV2, KCTD7, KDM6A, KERA, KIAA0586, KIAA1549, KIDINS220, KIF11, KIF5A, KIF7, KIZ, KLHL7, KMT2D, KRT12, KRT2, KRT3, LAMA1, LAMB1, LAMB2, LARGE1, LCA5, LCT, LEFTY2, LEMD2, LHX2, LIM2, LMX1B, LONP1, LOXHD1, LOXL1, LRAT, LRIT3, LRP2, LRP5, LRPAP1, LRRC6, LSS, LTBP2, LTBP3, LYST, LZTFL1, MAB21L2, MAF, MAK, MAN2B1, MAP3K7, MAPKAPK3, MBD5, MBTPS2, MCEE, MCOLN1, MECR, MED25, MERTK, MFF, MFN2, MFRP, MFSD8, MICALCL, MIP, MIPEP, MKKS, MKS1, MLPH, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC, MMP1, MMP19, MOCS1, MPDU1, MPLKIP, MRE11, MSMO1, MTTP, MUT, MVK, MYH9, MYO5A, MYO7A, MYOC, NAA10, NBAS, NDP, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA9, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFB3, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NEK1, NEK2, NEK4, NEK8, NEU1, NEUROD1, NF1, NHS, NKX2-5, NLRP1, NME8, NMNAT1, NOD2, NODAL, NOTCH2, NPC1, NPHP1, NPHP3, NPHP4, NR2E3, NR2F1, NRL, NSD1, NT5C2, NTF4, NUB1, NUS1, NXNL1, NYX, OAT, OCA2, OCRL, OFD1, OPA1, OPA3, OPN1LW, OPN1SW, OPTN, OSMR, OSTM1, OTX2, OVOL2, P3H2, P4HA2, PANK2, PAX2, PAX3, PAX6, PCDH15, PCNA, PCYT1A, PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6C, PDE6D, PDE6G, PDE6H, PDZD7, PET100, PEX1, PEX10, PEX11B, PEX12, PEX13, PEX14, PEX16, PEX19, PEX2, PEX26, PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PFKM, PGK1, PHGDH, PHYH, PIEZO2, PIGL, PIGT, PIGY, PIK3R1, PIKFYVE, PITPNM3, PITX2, PITX3, PLA2G5, PLG, PLK4, PLOD1, PLOD3, PLP1, PMM2, PNPLA6, POC1B, POGZ, POLA1, POMGNT1, POMGNT2, POMK, POMT1, PORCN, PPT1, PQBP1, PRCD, PRDM13, PRDM5, PRIMPOL, PRKACA, PRKCG, PROM1, PRPF3, PRPF31, PRPF4, PRPF6, PRPF8, PRPH2, PRPS1, PRSS56, PTCH1, PTF1A, PTPN11, PVRL3, PXDN, RAB18, RAB27A, RAB28, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, RAD50, RAI1, RARB, RAX, RAX2, RBP3, RBP4, RCBTB1, RD3, RDH11, RDH12, RDH5, RECQL4, REEP6, RERE, RGR, RGS9, RGS9BP, RHO, RIMS1, RIPK4, RLBP1, ROM1, RP1, RP1L1, RP2, RP9, RPE65, RPGR, RPGRIP1, RPGRIP1L, RPS19, RRM2B, RS1, RSPH4A, RSPH9, RSPO1, SACS, SAG, SALL2, SALL4, SAMD9, SBF2, SC5D, SCARF2, SCN8A, SCO2, SDCCAG8, SDHAF1, SEC23A, SEMA3E, SEMA4A, SERPINH1, SH3PXD2B, SHH, SIL1, SIPA1L3, SIX3, SIX5, SIX6, SLC16A12, SLC24A1, SLC24A5, SLC25A1, SLC25A46, SLC2A1, SLC33A1, SLC38A8, SLC39A5, SLC45A2, SLC4A11, SLC4A4, SLC4A5, SLC4A7, SLC52A2, SLC52A3, SLC7A14, SLITRK6, SLX4, SMCHD1, SMG9, SMOC1, SMPD1, SNAI2, SNRNP200, SNX10, SNX3, SOD1, SON, SOX2, SOX3, SPARC, SPATA7, SPINT2, SPP2, SPTBN2, SRD5A3, SREBF2, ST3GAL5, STIM1, STK38L, STN1, STRA6, STS, STT3B, SUCLA2, SUOX, TACSTD2, TAT, TBC1D20, TBC1D7, TBCE, TBL1XR1, TCF4, TCIRG1, TCOF1, TCTN1, TCTN2, TCTN3, TDRD7, TEAD1, TEK, TENM1, TENM3, TFAP2A, TGFB1, TGFBI, TIMM8A, TIMP3, TINF2, TLR3, TLR4, TMEM107, TMEM114, TMEM126A, TMEM138, TMEM216, TMEM231, TMEM237, TMEM5, TMEM67, TMEM70, TMEM98, TMTC3, TNFSF11, TNPO1, TOPORS, TPP1, TRAF3IP1, TREX1, TRIM32, TRIM37, TRIM44, TRNT1, TRPC1, TRPM1, TRPM2, TSPAN12, TTC21B, TTC8, TTLL5, TTPA, TTR, TUB, TUBA8, TUBB, TUBGCP4, TUBGCP6, TULP1, TYR, TYRP1, UBE3B, UBIAD1, UBR1, UCHL1, UNC119, UNC45B, USH1C, USH1G, USH2A, USP9X, VAX1, VCAN, VIM, VPS13B, VSX1, VSX2, WAC, WASF3, WDPCP, WDR19, WDR34, WDR35, WDR36, WFS1, WRN, XPA, XPC, XPNPEP3, YAP1, YME1L1, ZEB1, ZEB2, ZIC3, ZNF408, ZNF423, ZNF469, ZNF513, ZNF592, ZNF644
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • To assist with decisions about treatment and management of individuals with retinal dystrophies
  • Testing of at-risk relatives for specific known variant(s) previously identified in an affected family member
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial pathogenic variant(s) in at-risk pregnancies

Ordering

J905
8 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Buccal Swabs

Billing

81434x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Sahel et al. (2014) Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5 (2):a017111 (PMID: 25324231)
  2. Kocur et al. (2002) Br J Ophthalmol 86 (7):716-22 (PMID: 12084735);
  3. Ayuso et al. (2010) Genome Med 2 (5):34 (PMID: 20519033)
  4. Finger et al. (2011) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52 (7):4381-9 (PMID: 21447690)
  5. den Hollander et al. (2006) American Journal Of Human Genetics 79 (3):556-61 (PMID: 16909394)
  6. Braun et al. (2013) Human Molecular Genetics 22 (25):5136-45 (PMID: 23918662)
  7. Zernant et al. (2014) Hum. Mol. Genet. 23 (25):6797-806 (PMID: 25082829)
  8. Bauwens et al. (2015) Hum. Mutat. 36 (1):39-42 (PMID: 25346251)
  9. Schulz et al. (2017) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58 (1):394-403 (PMID: 28118664)
  10. Beryozkin et al. (2015) Sci Rep 5 :13187 (PMID: 26306921)
  11. Lee et al. (2015) Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160 (2):354-363.e9 (PMID: 25910913)
  12. de Castro-Miro et al. (2016) PLoS ONE 11 (12):e0168966 (PMID: 28005958)
  13. Haer-Wigman et al. (2017) Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 25 (5):591-599 (PMID: 28224992)
  14. Riera et al. (2017) Sci Rep 7 :42078 (PMID: 28181551)
  15. Carss et al. (2017) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 100 (1):75-90 (PMID: 28041643)
  16. Retterer et al. (2015) Genet. Med.: (PMID: 26633542)

Forms and Documents

Test Details

ABCA4, ELOVL4, RDS (PRPH2)
  • Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Determine if a sporadic case is recessive or dominant (de novo)
  • Carrier testing for family members of an affected individual with known mutation(s)
  • Prenatal diagnosis in at-risk pregnancies
  • Presymptomatic testing

Ordering

TG49
4 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Buccal Swabs | Extracted DNA

Billing

81404x1 , 81408x1
No
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com