Stargardt Disease

Stargardt disease (STGD) / Fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) is the most common autosomal recessive macular dystrophy with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000 individuals. STGD manifests in the first or second decade of life with decreased central vision, progressive bilateral atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and the appearance of orangeyellow flecks distributed in the posterior pole, sometimes extending beyond the vascular arcade. A milder form of the same disorder, fundus flavimaculatus, has a later age at onset, slower progression, and more-widespread distribution of the flecks. Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 40,000 individuals. Most patients experience visual loss, impaired color vision, and a central scotoma early in life. During the initial stage of disease, the fundus may be normal or show fine macular lesions and pallor of the optic disc. In the later stages, the fundus shows pigmentary deposits resembling bone spicules, frequently in the macular area. Cone-rod dystrophy is characterized by more severe cone degeneration, which in the electroretinogram (ERG), is distinguished by more distinctive reduction of the photopic cone bwave amplitude than the scotopic (rod b-wave) amplitude, compared to rod degeneration.

Tests Available

Forms and Documents

Test Details

ABCA4, ELOVL4, RDS (PRPH2)
  • Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Determine if a sporadic case is recessive or dominant (de novo)
  • Carrier testing for family members of an affected individual with known mutation(s)
  • Prenatal diagnosis in at-risk pregnancies
  • Presymptomatic testing
  • Deletion/Duplication Analysis

Ordering

908-STAR
3-4 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL) | Buccal Swabs

Billing

81479x1
No
Yes
  • 743.53 Chorioretinal degeneration, congenital
  • 743.54 Congenital folds and cysts of posterior segment
  • 743.55 Congenital macular changes
  • 362.76 Dystrophies primarily involving the retinal pigment epithelium, Fundus flavimaculatus, Vitelliform dystrophy
  • 362.75 Other dystrophies
  • 743.56 Other retinal changes, congenital
  • 362.74 Pigmentary retinal dystrophy, Retinal dystrophy, albipunctate, Retinitis pigmentosa
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Kitiratschky et al., (2008) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:5015
  2. Hamel CP et al., (2007) Orphanet J Rare Dis (1)2:7
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  5. Lotery AJ (2000) Arch Ophthalmol]. 118(4):538-43
  6. Sohocki et al., (2000) Mol Genet Metab 70:142–150
  7. Boon CJ et al., (2008) Prog Retin Eye Res 27:213-35
  8. Allikmets, et al (1998) Gene 215: 111-122
  9. Cremers F P M et al., (1998) Hum Molec Genet 7: 355-362
  10. Klevering B J et al., (2004) Eur J Hum Genet.12(12):1024-32
  11. Downes et al., (2001) Arch Ophthalmol 119:96-105
  12. Michaelides et al., (2005) Ophthalmology 112:1442-1447
  13. Kitiratschy et al., (2009) Human Mutation 30:E782-E796

Forms and Documents

Test Details

ABCA4, ELOVL4, RDS (PRPH2)
  • Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Determine if a sporadic case is recessive or dominant (de novo)
  • Carrier testing for family members of an affected individual with known mutation(s)
  • Prenatal diagnosis in at-risk pregnancies
  • Presymptomatic testing
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

466
3 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL) | Buccal Swabs

Billing

81404x1 , 81408x1
No
Yes
  • 743.53 Chorioretinal degeneration, congenital
  • 743.54 Congenital folds and cysts of posterior segment
  • 743.55 Congenital macular changes
  • 362.76 Dystrophies primarily involving the retinal pigment epithelium, Fundus flavimaculatus, Vitelliform dystrophy
  • 362.75 Other dystrophies
  • 743.56 Other retinal changes, congenital
  • 362.74 Pigmentary retinal dystrophy, Retinal dystrophy, albipunctate, Retinitis pigmentosa
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Guymer et al., (2001) Arch Ophthalmol 119(5):745-51
  2. Gamundi MJ et al., (2007) Mol Vision 13:1031–1037
  3. Boon CJ et al., (2008) Prog Retin Eye Res 27:213-35
  4. Dryja et al., (1997) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38:1972–82
  5. Zhang et al., (2001) Nat Genet 27:89-93
  6. Bernstein et al., (2001) Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 42: 3331-3336
  7. Yatsenko et al, (2003) Hum Mutat 21(6):636-44
  8. Boon CJ et al., (2007) Br J Ophthalmol 91:1504-11
  9. Maugeri et al., (2004) Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 45:4263-4267
  10. Edwards et al., (1999) Am J Ophthalmol 127:426- 435
  11. Valverde et al., (2006) Mol Vis 12:902-908 19.Valverde D et al., (2007) Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 48:985-990
  12. Aleman et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48(3):1319-29
  13. Maugeri et al., (1999) Am J Hum Genet 64:1024-1035
  14. Klevering et al., (2005) Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243(2):90-100
  15. Wiszniewski W et al., (2005) Hum Mol Genet 1:14(19):2769-78
  16. Rozetet al., (1998) Eur J Hum Genet 6(3):291-5
  17. Klevering et al., (2004) Eur J Hum Genet 12(12):1024-32
  18. Jaakson et al., (2003) Hum Mut 22:395-403
  19. Yatsenkoet al., (2001) Hum Genet 108:(4)346-55
  20. Rivera A et al., (2000) Am J Hum Genet 67:800-813
  21. Shroyer et al., (2001) Hum Molec Genet 10:2671-2678
  22. Allikmets et al., (2000) Am J Hum Genet 67:793-799
  23. Lewis et al., (1999) Am J Hum Genet 64:422-434
  24. De La Paz et al., (1999) Ophthalmology 106:1531-1536
  25. Stone EM et al., (1998) Nat Genet 20:328-329
  26. Cremers et al., (1998) Hum Molec Genet 7:355-362
  27. Allikmets et al., (1998) Gene 215: 111-122
  28. Allikmets et al., (1997) Science 19;277(5333):1805-7

Forms and Documents

Test Details

(GJC3), GCSH, GDF1, GDF3, GDF6, GFER, GJA1, GJA8, GJB2, GJB6, GJE1, GLB1, GLDC, GLIS2, GLIS3, GM2A, GMPPA
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • To assist with decisions about treatment and management of individuals with retinal dystrophies
  • Testing of at-risk relatives for specific known variant(s) previously identified in an affected family member
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial pathogenic variant(s) in at-risk pregnancies
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

J905
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL) | Buccal Swabs

Billing

81434x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Sahel et al. (2014) Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5 (2):a017111 (PMID: 25324231)
  2. Kocur et al. (2002) Br J Ophthalmol 86 (7):716-22 (PMID: 12084735);
  3. Ayuso et al. (2010) Genome Med 2 (5):34 (PMID: 20519033)
  4. Finger et al. (2011) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52 (7):4381-9 (PMID: 21447690)
  5. den Hollander et al. (2006) American Journal Of Human Genetics 79 (3):556-61 (PMID: 16909394)
  6. Braun et al. (2013) Human Molecular Genetics 22 (25):5136-45 (PMID: 23918662)
  7. Zernant et al. (2014) Hum. Mol. Genet. 23 (25):6797-806 (PMID: 25082829)
  8. Bauwens et al. (2015) Hum. Mutat. 36 (1):39-42 (PMID: 25346251)
  9. Schulz et al. (2017) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58 (1):394-403 (PMID: 28118664)
  10. Beryozkin et al. (2015) Sci Rep 5 :13187 (PMID: 26306921)
  11. Lee et al. (2015) Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160 (2):354-363.e9 (PMID: 25910913)
  12. de Castro-Miro et al. (2016) PLoS ONE 11 (12):e0168966 (PMID: 28005958)
  13. Haer-Wigman et al. (2017) Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 25 (5):591-599 (PMID: 28224992)
  14. Riera et al. (2017) Sci Rep 7 :42078 (PMID: 28181551)
  15. Carss et al. (2017) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 100 (1):75-90 (PMID: 28041643)
  16. Retterer et al. (2015) Genet. Med.: (PMID: 26633542)