Pyridoxine-Refractory Sideroblastic Anemia, Autosomal Recessive

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AARS, AARS2, ABCB11, ABCB4, ABCB7, ABCD4, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADVL, ACO2, ACSF3, ADCK3 (CABC1; COQ8), ADCK4, AFG3L2, AGK, AGL, AIFM1, ALAS2, ALDOA, ALDOB, ALG1, ALG11, ALG13, ALG2, ALG3, ALG6, ALG9, AMACR, APOPT1, APTX, ARG1, ASL, ASS1, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP7B, ATP8B1, ATPAF2 (ATP12), AUH, B4GALT1, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, BCS1L, BOLA3, C10ORF2, C12ORF65, C19orf12, CA5A, CARS2, CHKB, CISD2, CLPB, COA5 (C2ORF64), COA6, COASY, COG4, COG5, COG6, COG7, COG8, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ9, COX10, COX14 (C12ORF62), COX15, COX20 (FAM36A), COX4I2, COX6A1, COX6B1, COX7B, CPS1, CPT1A, CPT2, CYC1, DARS, DARS2, DBT, DDHD1, DDHD2, DDOST, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DMGDH, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, DNM2, DOLK, DPAGT1, DPM1, DPM3, EARS2, ECHS1, ELAC2, ENO3, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FAH, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBP1, FBXL4, FDX1L, FH, FLAD1, FOXRED1, G6PC, GAA, GAMT, GARS, GATM, GBE1, GCDH, GFER, GFM1 (EFG1), GFM2, GLRX5, GMPPA, GSS, GTPBP3, GYG1, GYG2, GYS1, GYS2, HADHA, HADHB, HARS2, HCFC1, HIBCH, HLCS, HMGCL, HMGCS2, HSD17B10, HSPD1, IARS2, IBA57, ISCA2, ISCU, IVD, LAMP2, LARS, LARS2, LDHA, LIAS, LIPT1, LMBRD1, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS, MARS2, MCCC1, MCCC2, MCEE, MFF, MFN2, MGAT2, MGME1, MICU1, MLYCD, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC (C2ORF25) , MOGS, MPC1 (BRP44L), MPDU1, MPI, MPV17, MRPL12, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MRPS7, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, MTR, MTRR, MUT, NADK2, NAGS, NARS2, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA4, NDUFA9, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3 (C3ORF60), NDUFAF4 (C6ORF66), NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFAF7 (C2ORF56), NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFS1, NFU1, NGLY1, NR2F1, NUBPL, OPA1, OPA3, OTC, PARS2, PC, PCCA, PCCB, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PET100, PFKM, PGAM2, PGM1, PHKA1, PHKA2, PHKB, PHKG2, PMM2, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PRKAG2, PRPS1, PTRH2, PUS1, PYGM, QARS, RANBP2, RARS, RARS2, REEP1 (C2ORF23), RFT1, RMND1, RRM2B, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHA, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A2, SLC19A3, SLC22A5, SLC25A1, SLC25A13, SLC25A15, SLC25A19, SLC25A20, SLC25A22, SLC25A3 (PHC), SLC25A38, SLC25A4, SLC2A2, SLC35A1, SLC35A2, SLC35C1, SLC37A4, SLC6A8, SLC7A7, SPAST, SPG7, SPTLC1, SRD5A3, SSR4, STT3A, STT3B, STXBP1, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TIMM8A, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM165, TMEM70, TPK1, TRIT1, TRMU, TRNT1, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TYMP, UQCC2, UQCC3, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, WDR45, WFS1, YARS2
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Testing of patients suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies.
  • Exon Array CGH
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

573
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81440x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Raha, S. (2005) Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 2086-93.
  2. van Adel, B. A., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2009) J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 10, 97-121.
  3. Zhu, X., Peng, X., Guan, M. X., and Yan, Q. (2009) Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 41, 179-87.
  4. Chinnery, P. F. (1993(updated 2010)) GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-.2000 Jun 08 [updated 2010 Sep 16].
  5. Bennett, S. (2004) Pharmacogenomics 5, 433-8.
  6. Oliveira, G., Diogo, L., Grazina, M., Garcia, P., Ataide, A., Marques, C., Miguel, T., Borges, L., Vicente, A. M., and Oliveira, C. R. (2005) Dev Med Child Neurol 47, 185-9.

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AARS, AARS2, ABCB11, ABCB4, ABCB7, ABCD4, ACAD9, ACADM, ACADVL, ACO2, ACSF3, ADCK3 (CABC1; COQ8), ADCK4, AFG3L2, AGK, AGL, AIFM1, ALAS2, ALDOA, ALDOB, ALG1, ALG11, ALG13, ALG2, ALG3, ALG6, ALG9, AMACR, APOPT1, APTX, ARG1, ASL, ASS1, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP7B, ATP8B1, ATPAF2 (ATP12), AUH, B4GALT1, BCKDHA, BCKDHB, BCS1L, BOLA3, C10ORF2, C12ORF65, C19orf12, CA5A, CARS2, CHKB, CISD2, CLPB, COA5 (C2ORF64), COA6, COASY, COG4, COG5, COG6, COG7, COG8, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ9, COX10, COX14 (C12ORF62), COX15, COX20 (FAM36A), COX4I2, COX6A1, COX6B1, COX7B, CPS1, CPT1A, CPT2, CYC1, DARS, DARS2, DBT, DDHD1, DDHD2, DDOST, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DMGDH, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, DNM2, DOLK, DPAGT1, DPM1, DPM3, EARS2, ECHS1, ELAC2, ENO3, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FAH, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBP1, FBXL4, FDX1L, FH, FLAD1, FOXRED1, G6PC, GAA, GAMT, GARS, GATM, GBE1, GCDH, GFER, GFM1 (EFG1), GFM2, GLRX5, GMPPA, GSS, GTPBP3, GYG1, GYG2, GYS1, GYS2, HADHA, HADHB, HARS2, HCFC1, HIBCH, HLCS, HMGCL, HMGCS2, HSD17B10, HSPD1, IARS2, IBA57, ISCA2, ISCU, IVD, LAMP2, LARS, LARS2, LDHA, LIAS, LIPT1, LMBRD1, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS, MARS2, MCCC1, MCCC2, MCEE, MFF, MFN2, MGAT2, MGME1, MICU1, MLYCD, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC (C2ORF25) , MOGS, MPC1 (BRP44L), MPDU1, MPI, MPV17, MRPL12, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MRPS7, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, MTR, MTRR, MUT, NADK2, NAGS, NARS2, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA4, NDUFA9, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3 (C3ORF60), NDUFAF4 (C6ORF66), NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFAF7 (C2ORF56), NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFS1, NFU1, NGLY1, NR2F1, NUBPL, OPA1, OPA3, OTC, PARS2, PC, PCCA, PCCB, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PET100, PFKM, PGAM2, PGM1, PHKA1, PHKA2, PHKB, PHKG2, PMM2, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PRKAG2, PRPS1, PTRH2, PUS1, PYGM, QARS, RANBP2, RARS, RARS2, REEP1 (C2ORF23), RFT1, RMND1, RRM2B, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHA, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A2, SLC19A3, SLC22A5, SLC25A1, SLC25A13, SLC25A15, SLC25A19, SLC25A20, SLC25A22, SLC25A3 (PHC), SLC25A38, SLC25A4, SLC2A2, SLC35A1, SLC35A2, SLC35C1, SLC37A4, SLC6A8, SLC7A7, SPAST, SPG7, SPTLC1, SRD5A3, SSR4, STT3A, STT3B, STXBP1, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TIMM8A, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM165, TMEM70, TPK1, TRIT1, TRMU, TRNT1, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TYMP, UQCC2, UQCC3, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, WDR45, WFS1, YARS2
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Testing of patients suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies.
  • Exon Array CGH
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

615
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81460x1, 81465x1, 81440x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Raha, S. (2005) Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 2086-93.
  2. van Adel, B. A., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2009) J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 10, 97-121.
  3. Zhu, X., Peng, X., Guan, M. X., and Yan, Q. (2009) Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 41, 179-87.
  4. Chinnery, P. F. (1993(updated 2010)) GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-.2000 Jun 08 [updated 2010 Sep 16].
  5. Bennett, S. (2004) Pharmacogenomics 5, 433-8.
  6. Oliveira, G., Diogo, L., Grazina, M., Garcia, P., Ataide, A., Marques, C., Miguel, T., Borges, L., Vicente, A. M., and Oliveira, C. R. (2005) Dev Med Child Neurol 47, 185-9.

Forms and Documents

Test Details

ABCB7, ALAS2, GLRX5, PUS1, SLC19A2, SLC25A38, TRNT1, YARS2
  • Mitochondrial genome large deletion testing
  • Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • To assist in determining the most appropriate therapy, as the response to specific therapeutic modalities depends on the diagnosis
  • Targeted testing for a known familial variant
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial variants in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies
  • Genetic counseling
  • Exon Array CGH
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

938
4 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube

Billing

81465x1, 81479x8
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, (TM). McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, MD), http://www.ncbi.nlm.n
  2. Bergmann AK et al. Systematic molecular genetic analysis of congenital sideroblastic anemia: evidence for genetic heterogeneity and identification of novel mutations. Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2010 Feb 54(2):273-8. (PMID:19731322)
  3. Ohba R et al. Clinical and genetic characteristics of congenital sideroblastic anemia: comparison with myelodysplastic syndrome with ring sideroblast (MDS-RS). Annals Of Hematology. 2013 Jan 92(1):1-9. (PMID:22983749)
  4. Bekri S, D’Hooghe M, Vermeersch P. X-Linked Sideroblastic Anemia and Ataxia. 2006 Mar 1 [Updated 2014 Apr 3]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2015. Availab
  5. Aivado M et al. X-linked sideroblastic anemia associated with a novel ALAS2 mutation and unfortunate skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns. Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases. 37(1):40-5. (PMID: 16735131)
  6. Guernsey DL et al. Mutations in mitochondrial carrier family gene SLC25A38 cause nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital sideroblastic anemia. Nature Genetics. 2009 Jun 41(6):651-3. (PMID: 19412178)
  7. Rouault TA and Tong WH. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and human disease. Trends In Genetics : Tig. 2008 Aug 24(8):398-407. (PMID:18606475)
  8. Ye H et al. Glutaredoxin 5 deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia by specifically impairing heme biosynthesis and depleting cytosolic iron in human erythroblasts. The Journal Of Clinical Investigation. 2010 May 120(5):1749-61. (PMID:20364084)
  9. Bykhovskaya Y et al. Missense mutation in pseudouridine synthase 1 (PUS1) causes mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA). American Journal Of Human Genetics. 2004 Jun 74(6):1303-8. (PMID: 15108122)
  10. Bergmann AK et al. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia: identification of novel compound heterozygotes and mutation update. The Journal Of Pediatrics. 2009 Dec 155(6):888-892. (PMID: 19643445)
  11. Chakraborty PK et al. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Blood. 2014 Oct 30 124(18):2867-71. (PMID: 25193871)
  12. Wiseman DH et al. A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Blood. 2013 Jul 4 122(1):112-23. (PMID: 23553769)
  13. Riley LG et al. Mutation of the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene, YARS2, causes myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia--MLASA syndrome. American Journal Of Human Genetics. 2010 87(1):52-9. (PMID: 20598274)
  14. Riley LG et al. Phenotypic variability and identification of novel YARS2 mutations in YARS2 mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia. Orphanet Journal Of Rare Diseases. 2013 8:193. (PMID: 24344687)
  15. DiMauro S, Hirano M. Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Syndromes. 2003 Dec 17 [Updated 2011 May 3]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2015. Available from: http://w
  16. Bekri S et al. Human ABC7 transporter: gene structure and mutation causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia with disruption of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein maturation. Blood. 2000 96(9):3256-64. (PMID: 11050011)
  17. D\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'Hooghe M et al. X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia: a new family with identification of a fourth ABCB7 gene mutation. European Journal Of Paediatric Neurology : Ejpn : Official Journal Of The European Paediatric Neur
  18. Maguire A et al. X-linked cerebellar ataxia and sideroblastic anaemia associated with a missense mutation in the ABC7 gene predicting V411L. British Journal Of Haematology. 2001 Dec 115(4):910-7. (PMID: 11843825)
  19. Bishop DF et al. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to carboxyl-terminal ALAS2 mutations that cause loss of binding to the ?-subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SUCLA2). The Journal Of Biological Chemistry. 2012 287(34):28943-55. (PMID:22740690)
  20. Campagna DR et al. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 intron 1 enhancer element GATA-binding site mutations. American Journal Of Hematology. 2014 Mar 89(3):315-9. (PMID:24166784)
  21. Kaneko K et al. Identification of a novel erythroid-specific enhancer for the ALAS2 gene and its loss-of-function mutation which is associated with congenital sideroblastic anemia. Haematologica. 2014 Feb 99(2):252-61. (PMID:23935018)
  22. . Stenson et al. (2014) The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD®) Human genetics 133(1):1-9 (PMID: 24077912)
  23. Kannengiesser C et al. Missense SLC25A38 variations play an important role in autosomal recessive inherited sideroblastic anemia. Haematologica. 2011 Jun 96(6):808-13. (PMID:21393332)
  24. . Fernandez-Vizarra E et al. Nonsense mutation in pseudouridylate synthase 1 (PUS1) in two brothers affected by myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia (MLASA). Journal Of Medical Genetics. 2007 Mar 44(3):173-80. (PMID: 17056637)
  25. Oishi K, Diaz GA. Thiamine-Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome. 2003 Oct 24 [Updated 2014 Nov 20]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2015. Available fro
  26. Labay V et al. Mutations in SLC19A2 cause thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia associated with diabetes mellitus and deafness. Nature Genetics. 1999 Jul 22(3):300-4. (PMID: 10391221)
  27. Scharfe C et al. A novel mutation in the thiamine responsive megaloblastic anaemia gene SLC19A2 in a patient with deficiency of respiratory chain complex I. Journal Of Medical Genetics. 2000 Sep 37(9):669-73. (PMID: 10978358)
  28. Shahni R et al. A distinct mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) phenotype associates with YARS2 mutations. American Journal Of Medical Genetics. Part A. 2013 161(9):2334-8. (PMID:23918765)

Forms and Documents

Test Details

Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
Testing of patients suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder
Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies.

  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

J809
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81440x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Oliveira, G., Diogo, L., Grazina, M., Garcia, P., Ataide, A., Marques, C., Miguel, T., Borges, L., Vicente, A. M., and Oliveira, C. R. (2005) Dev Med Child Neurol 47, 185-9.
  2. Chinnery, P. F. (1993(updated 2010)) GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-.2000 Jun 08 [updated 2010 Sep 16].
  3. Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Raha, S. (2005) Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 2086-93.
  4. van Adel, B. A., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2009) J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 10, 97-121.
  5. Zhu, X., Peng, X., Guan, M. X., and Yan, Q. (2009) Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 41, 179-87.
  6. Bai R, Balog A, Higgs J, Retterer K, Arjona D, Juusola J, Vitazka P, Suchy S, Enns GM, Haas R, Goldstein A, Tarnopolsky M, Parikh S, Copeland WC, Niyazov D, Falk MJ, Chung WK, Bale S, Richard G. WES and WMGS for Molecular Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Disord
  7. Pronicka et al. (2016) J Transl Med 14 (1):174 (PMID: 27290639)
  8. Taylor et al. (2014) Jama 312 (1):68-77 (PMID: 25058219)
  9. Retterer et al. (2015) Genet. Med.: (PMID: 26633542)