Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia (PCH)

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) results from a combination of a developmental defect of the ventral pons and progressive atrophy of the cerebellum during prenatal development. There are multiple different types of PCH that share overlapping clinical features, including hypotonia, developmental delay, seizures, and movement disorders. Specific subtypes of PCH are also associated with spinal muscular atrophy, progressive microcephaly, severe generalized clonus, hyperekplexia, camptodactyly, and micrognathia.

Tests Available

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AARS2, ABCB7, ACAD9, ACO2, AFG3L2, AGK, AIFM1, ALAS2, APOPT1, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, BOLA3, C12ORF65, C19orf12, CARS2, CLPB, COA5, COA6, COASY, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ7, COQ8A, COQ8B, COQ9, COX10, COX14, COX15, COX20, COX6A1, COX6B1, COX8A, CYC1, DARS2, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, EARS2, ECHS1, ELAC2, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBXL4, FDX1L, FH, FLAD1, FOXRED1, GARS, GCDH, GFER, GFM1, GFM2, GLRX5, GTPBP3, GYG2, HARS2, HMGCL, HTRA2, IARS2, IBA57, ISCA2, ISCU, LAMP2, LARS, LARS2, LIAS, LIPT1, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS2, MFF, MFN2, MGME1, MICU1, MPC1, MPV17, MRPL12, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MRPS7, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, NARS2, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA4, NDUFA9, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFAF7, NDUFB11, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFS1, NFU1, NR2F1, NUBPL, OPA1, OPA3, OTC, PARS2, PC, PCCA, PCCB, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PET100, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PRKAG2, PUS1, QARS, RARS, RARS2, RMND1, RNASEH1, RRM2B, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHA, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A2, SLC19A3, SLC22A5, SLC25A26, SLC25A3, SLC25A38, SLC25A4, SLC25A46, SPAST, SPG7, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TFAM, TIMM8A, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM126B, TMEM70, TPK1, TRIT1, TRMT10C, TRMU, TRNT1, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TWNK, TYMP, UQCC2, UQCC3, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, WDR45, WFS1, YARS2
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Testing of patients suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies.
  • Next-Gen Sequencing
  • Deletion/Duplication Testing

Ordering

573
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81440x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Oliveira et al. (2005) Dev Med Child Neurol 47 (3):185-9 (PMID: 15739723)
  2. Chinnery P. Mitochondrial Disorders Overview 2000 Jun 8 [Updated 2014 Aug 14]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2018. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.n
  3. Tarnopolsky et al. (2005) Med Sci Sports Exerc 37 (12):2086-93 (PMID: 16331134)
  4. van Adel et al. (2009) Journal Of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease 10 (3):97-121 (PMID: 19258857)
  5. Zhu et al. (2009) Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) 41 (3):179-87 (PMID: 19280056)
  6. Koenig et al. (2008) Pediatr. Neurol. 38 (5):305-13 (PMID: 18410845)
  7. Zeviani et al. (2004) Brain 127 (Pt 10):2153-72 (PMID: 15358637)
  8. Taylor et al. (2014) JAMA 312 (1):68-77 (PMID: 25058219)

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AARS2, ABCB7, ACAD9, ACO2, AFG3L2, AGK, AIFM1, ALAS2, APOPT1, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP7B, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, BOLA3, C12ORF65, C19orf12, CARS2, CLPB, COA5, COA6, COASY, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ7, COQ8A, COQ8B, COQ9, COX10, COX14, COX15, COX20, COX6A1, COX6B1, COX8A, CYC1, DARS2, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, EARS2, ECHS1, ELAC2, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBXL4, FDX1L, FH, FLAD1, FOXRED1, GARS, GCDH, GFER, GFM1, GFM2, GLRX5, GTPBP3, GYG2, HARS2, HMGCL, HTRA2, IARS2, IBA57, ISCA2, ISCU, LAMP2, LARS, LARS2, LIAS, LIPT1, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS2, MFF, MFN2, MGME1, MICU1, MPC1, MPV17, MRPL12, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MRPS7, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, NARS2, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA4, NDUFA9, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFAF7, NDUFB11, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFS1, NFU1, NR2F1, NUBPL, OPA1, OPA3, OTC, PARS2, PC, PCCA, PCCB, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PET100, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PRKAG2, PUS1, QARS, RARS, RARS2, RMND1, RNASEH1, RRM2B, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHA, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A2, SLC19A3, SLC22A5, SLC25A26, SLC25A3, SLC25A38, SLC25A4, SLC25A46, SPAST, SPG7, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TFAM, TIMM8A, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM126B, TMEM70, TPK1, TRIT1, TRMT10C, TRMU, TRNT1, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TWNK, TYMP, UQCC2, UQCC3, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, WDR45, WFS1, YARS2
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Testing of patients suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in nuclear genes in at-risk pregnancies.
  • Next-Gen Sequencing
  • Deletion/Duplication Testing

Ordering

615
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81460x1, 81465x1, 81440x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Oliveira et al. (2005) Dev Med Child Neurol 47 (3):185-9 (PMID: 15739723)
  2. Chinnery P. Mitochondrial Disorders Overview 2000 Jun 8 [Updated 2014 Aug 14]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2018. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.n
  3. Tarnopolsky et al. (2005) Med Sci Sports Exerc 37 (12):2086-93 (PMID: 16331134)
  4. van Adel et al. (2009) Journal Of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease 10 (3):97-121 (PMID: 19258857)
  5. Zhu et al. (2009) Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) 41 (3):179-87 (PMID: 19280056)
  6. Longo et al. (2003) Neurol Clin 21 (4):817-31 (PMID: 14743651)
  7. Koenig et al. (2008) Pediatr. Neurol. 38 (5):305-13 (PMID: 18410845)
  8. Zeviani et al. (2004) Brain 127 (Pt 10):2153-72 (PMID: 15358637)
  9. Taylor et al. (2014) JAMA 312 (1):68-77 (PMID: 25058219)

Forms and Documents

Test Details

ACTB, ACTG1, ADGRG1, AHI1, AKT3, ARFGEF2, ARL13B, ARX, ASPM, ATP6V0A2, B3GALNT2, B3GNT1, B9D1, C5orf42, CASK, CC2D2A, CCND2, CEP290, CEP41, CHMP1A, CLP1, CSPP1, CUL4B, DCX, DYNC1H1, ERMARD, EXOSC3, FAT4, FKRP, FKTN, FLNA, GMPPB, GPSM2, IFT172, INPP5E, ISPD, KIAA1279 (KIF1BP), KIF2A, KIF5C, KIF7, LAMB1, LAMC3, LARGE, MKS1, NDE1, NPHP1, NPHP3, OCLN, OFD1 (CXORF5), OPHN1, PAFAH1B1, POMGNT1, POMGNT2, POMK, POMT1, POMT2, PQBP1, RAB18, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, RARS2, RELN, RPGRIP1L, RTTN, SEPSECS, SRD5A3, SRPX2, TBC1D20, TCTN1, TCTN2, TCTN3, TMEM138, TMEM216, TMEM231, TMEM237, TMEM5, TMEM67, TSEN2, TSEN34, TSEN54, TTC21B, TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB, TUBB2A, TUBB2B, TUBB3, TUBB4A, TUBG1, VLDLR, VPS53, VRK1, WDR62
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Distinguish between causes and forms of brain malformations
  • Genetic counseling
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in at-risk pregnancies
  • Exon Array CGH
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

691
4 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81405x2, 81406x3, 81407x2, 81408x1
No
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Verloes et al. (2015) European Journal Of Human Genetics : Ejhg 23 (3):292-301 (PMID: 25052316).
  2. Piao et al. (2005) Annals Of Neurology 58 (5):680-7 (PMID: 16240336).
  3. Bahi-Buisson et al. (2010) Brain : A Journal Of Neurology 133 (11):3194-209 (PMID: 20929962).
  4. Rivière et al. (2012) Nature Genetics 44 (8):934-40 (PMID: 22729224)
  5. Mirzaa et al. (2014) Nature Genetics 46 (5):510-5 (PMID: 24705253).
  6. Tanyalçin et al. (2013) European Journal Of Paediatric Neurology : Ejpn : Official Journal Of The European Paediatric Neurology Society 17 (6):666-70 (PMID: 23755938).
  7. Bahi-Buisson et al. (2013) Handbook Of Clinical Neurology 111 :653-65 (PMID: 23622213).
  8. Kato et al. (2004) Human Mutation 23 (2):147-59 (PMID: 14722918).
  9. Dobyns, et al. (2010) Epilepsia 51 Suppl 1 :5-9 (PMID: 20331703).
  10. Poirier et al. (2006) Neurogenetics 7 (1):39-46 (PMID: 16235064).
  11. Nawara et al. (2006) American Journal Of Medical Genetics. Part A 140 (7):727-32 (PMID: 16523516).
  12. Verloes A, Drunat S, Gressens P, et al. Primary Autosomal Recessive Microcephalies and Seckel Syndrome Spectrum Disorders. 2009 Sep 1 [Updated 2013 Oct 31].
  13. Gardeitchik et al. (2014) European Journal Of Human Genetics : Ejhg 22 (7):888-95 (PMID: 23963297).
  14. Fischer et al. (2012) Human Genetics 131 (11):1761-73 (PMID: 22773132).
  15. Stevens et al. (2013) American Journal Of Human Genetics 92 (3):354-65 (PMID: 23453667).

Forms and Documents

Test Details

CASK, CHMP1A, CLP1, EXOSC3, OPHN1, RARS2, RELN, SEPSECS, TSEN2, TSEN34, TSEN54, TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB3, VLDLR, VPS53, VRK1
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Distinguish between causes and forms of cerebellar hypoplasia
  • Genetic counseling
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial mutation(s) in at-risk pregnancies
  • Exon Array CGH
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

700
4 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81479x7
No
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Namavar et al. Orphanet J Rare Diseases (2011) 6:50-63
  2. Maricich et al. J Child Neurol. 2011 26:288-294.
  3. Namavar et al. GeneReviews (accessed September 2012); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9673/
  4. Cassandrini D et al. Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1459-64.
  5. Najm J et al. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1065-7.
  6. Hackett A et al. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 May;18(5):544-52.
  7. Burglen L et al. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012 Mar 27;7:18.
  8. Budde BS et al. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1113-8.
  9. Namavar Y et al. Brain. 2011 Jan;134(Pt 1):143-56.
  10. Cassandrini D et al. Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1459-64. 1

Forms and Documents

Test Details

CASK, CHMP1A, CLP1, EXOSC3, OPHN1, RARS2, RELN, SEPSECS, TSEN2, TSEN34, TSEN54, TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB3, VLDLR, VPS53, VRK1
  • Prenatal imaging findings suggestive of pontocerebellar hypoplasia
  • Next-Gen Sequencing
  • Exon Array CGH

Ordering

J802
3 weeks
20 mL Amniotic Fluid
20 mg CVS|2 T25 flasks of cultured amniocytes|2 T25 flasks of cultured chorionic villi|3 Ug DNA Concentration

Billing

81479x7
No
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Namavar et al., (2011) Orphanet J Rare Diseases 6:50-63 (PMID: 21749694).
  2. Maricich et al., (2011) J Child Neurol. 26(3):288-294 (PMID: 21383226).
  3. Namavar et al. GeneReviews (accessed September 2012); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9673.
  4. Cassandrini D et al., (2011) Neurology. 75(16):1459-64 (PMID: 20956791).
  5. Tischfield et al., (2011) Curr Opin Genet Dev 21: 286-294 (PMID:21292473).
  6. Poretti et al., (2014) Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 166C(2): 211-26 (PMID: 24839100).
  7. Najm J et al., (2008) Nat Genet. 40(9):1065-7 (PMID: 19165920).
  8. Graham et al. (2010) Am. J. Med. Genet. A 152A (9):2268-76 (PMID: 20803644).
  9. Leibovitz et al. (2014) Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 44 (5):575-80 (PMID: 24448830).