Glaucoma affects 67 million people worldwide, and represents a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disease characterized by optic disc cupping and visual field loss. Untreated, glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness caused by damage to the optic nerve. The three major types of glaucoma include primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and primary acute closed angle glaucoma (PACG). A genetically heterogeneous group of developmental disorders known as anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have been reported to be associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma.
Primary Congenital Glaucoma (PCG) is a form of glaucoma commonly referred to as infantile or congenital glaucoma. The incidence of PCG varies geographically from 1/10,000 in Western countries to 1/2500 in the Middle East. It is the most common form of glaucoma in infants, with more than 80% of cases observed within the first year of life. It typically manifests at birth or within the first year of life, but may manifest as late as three years of age. Characteristic clinical features of PCG include tearing, photophobia, corneal edema and buphthalmos resulting from elevated intraocular pressure, which can rapidly lead to axonal loss and permanent loss of vision in untreated individuals.