Glaucoma affects 67 million people worldwide, and represents a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disease characterized by optic disc cupping and visual field loss. Untreated, glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness caused by damage to the optic nerve. The three major types of glaucoma include primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and primary acute closed angle glaucoma (PACG). A genetically heterogeneous group of developmental disorders known as anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have been reported to be associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma.
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, affecting about 37 million people. Based on the age of onset, POAG is divided into juvenile-onset POAG (JOAG) and adult-onset POAG. JOAG (age of onset 3–35 years) is associated with high intraocular pressure, visual field loss, and optic disc damage and requires early surgical therapy.