X-linked congenital nystagmus is an X-linked hereditary form of congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN). The onset of nystagmus is during the infancy (less than 6 month of age). Congenital nystagmus typically presents with conjugate, horizontal oscillations of the eyes. Rarely the nystagmus is vertical or monocular. These oscillations usually occur during primary or eccentric gaze, often with an anomalous of the head posture head. Other features include strabismus, refractive error, and head movements.
Other disorders to be differentiated from CIN are:
a. Acquired nystagmus: Nystagmus can be acquired due to inner ear disorders such as labyrinthitis or Meniere's disease, toxic causes such as drugs, medication, or alcohol intoxication, head injury, and stroke or any disease of the brain
b. Other inherited disorders associated with nystagmus: Albinism, achromatopsia, X-linked congenital stationary blindness, Leber congenital amaurosis, optic disc atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia, and aniridia.