Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is a heritable disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by calcifications of the basal ganglia and white matter, and elevated CSF alpha interferon with no detectable infectious etiology. These patients may present in the neonatal period with a syndrome that mimics in utero viral infections, including coombs positive hemolytic anemia and autoimmune thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminases, microcephaly, seizures, vasculitic skin lesions, and cerebral calcifications. Often, these patients are initially suspected of having a congenital cytomegalus virus, rubella or HIV infection. A genetic cause may be suspected only after the birth of a second affected child. This condition may also present in older infants with progressive microcephaly, dystonia, seizures and developmental delay as well as sterile pyrexias, lupus like skin and joint manifestations, progressive intracranial calcifications, and chronically elevated CSF lymphocytes. Some children diagnosed with Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome may remain clinically stable for long periods of time. Developmental regression associated with painful skin lesions and systemic manifestations, often in an episodic manner, occur in the early years of life, followed in many cases by years of stability. Progressive cerebral atrophy and cerebral calcifications are seen. Many children succumb later in life to medical complications, but children living into their teens and later are known.

 

Tests Available

Forms and Documents

Test Details

RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, TREX1
  • Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • Development of an appropriate management plan
  • Prenatal diagnosis in families with a defined mutation
  • Carrier testing
  • Capillary Sequencing

Ordering

547
3 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81479x4
No
Yes
  • 333.6 Genetic torsion dystonia Dystonia: deformans progressiva, musculorum deformans (Schwalbe-), Ziehen-Oppenheim disease
  • 779 Other and ill-defined conditions originating in the perinatal period
  • 333 Other extrapyramidal disease and abnormal movement disorders Includes: other forms of extrapyramidal, basal ganglia, or striatopallidal disease Excludes: abnormal movements of head NOS (781.0) sleep related movement disorders (327.51-327.59)
  • 315.9 Unspecified delay in development, Developmental disorder NOS, Learning disorder NOS
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Lebon et al., (1988) J Neurol Sci 84:201-208
  2. Bonnemann et al., (1992). Neuropediatrics. 23:157-161
  3. Tolmie et al., (1995) J Med Genet. 32: 881-884
  4. Goutieres et al., (1998) Ann Neurol, 1998. 44:900-907.
  5. Kuijpers et al., (2002) Eur J Paediatr Neurol 6 Suppl A: A59-64; discussion A65-6, A77-86.
  6. Crow et al., (2008) Dev Med Child Neurol. 50:410-416.
  7. Aicardi, J. and F. Goutieres, (2000) Neuropediatrics 31:113.
  8. Giroud et al., (1986) Childs Nerv Syst 2:47-48.
  9. Rice, G., et al., (2007) Am J Hum Genet 80:811-815

Forms and Documents

Test Details

AARS, AARS2, ABAT, ABCD1, ACADS, ACER3, ACOX1, ACY1, ADAR, ADGRG1, ADSL, AHDC1, AIMP1, ALDH3A2, ALDH6A1, AMN, AMPD2, ANK3, AP4B1, AP4S1, APOPT1, ARHGAP31, ARHGEF10, ARNT2, ARSA, ASNS, ASPA, ASXL1, AUH, BCAP31, BCS1L, BEST1, BMP4, BRAT1, CARS2, CCDC88A, CHMP2B, CLCN2, CLN6, CLP1, COL4A1, COL4A2, COX10, COX15, COX7B, CPLX1, CSF1R, CTBP1, CTC1, CTDP1, CYP27A1, CYP7B1, D2HGDH, DAG1, DARS, DARS2, DDHD2, DEAF1, DHFR, DHH, DLL4, DNM2, DOCK6, DPYS, DYRK1A, EARS2, EDNRB, EGR2, EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, EIF2B5, ENTPD1, EPG5, ERCC2, ERCC6, ERCC8, FA2H, FAM126A, FBXL4, FGD4, FGFRL1, FIG4, FKRP, FOXC1, FOXG1, FOXRED1, GAA, GALC, GAN, GBE1, GCDH, GDAP1, GFAP, GFM1 (EFG1), GJA1, GJB1, GJC2, GLB1, GLUL, GLYCTK, GNAO1, GRM7, GRN, HEPACAM, HEXA, HSD17B4, HSPD1, HTRA1, IBA57, IDUA, IER3IP1, IFIH1, ISCA2, ITPA, KARS, KCNJ10, KCNT1, L2HGDH, LAMA1, LAMA2, LAMB1, LARGE1, LETM1, LIPT1, LITAF, LMNB1, LRPPRC, LYRM7, MAPT, MARS2, MAT1A, MCOLN1, MEF2C, MLC1, MOCS1, MOCS2, MPV17, MPZ, MRPS22, MTFMT, MTTP, MUT, NADK2, NDRG1, NDUFA1, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFA2, NDUFA9, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3 (C3ORF60), NDUFAF4 (C6ORF66), NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NDUFV3, NEFL, NFU1, NGLY1, NOTCH1, NOTCH3, NRXN1, NSD2, NUBPL, OCRL, PAFAH1B1, PC, PCDH12, PDYN, PEX1, PEX10, PEX11B, PEX12, PEX13, PEX14, PEX16, PEX19, PEX2, PEX26, PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PGAP1, PHGDH, PHYH, PIGA, PLEKHG2, PLP1, PMP22, POLG, POLR1C, POLR3A, POLR3B, POMK, POMT1, PPP2R1A, PRKDC, PRPS1, PRX, PSAP, PSEN1, PTEN, PURA, PYCR2, QARS, RARS, RBPJ, RMND1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, RNASET2, RNF216, RPIA, RPS6KC1, SAMHD1, SBF2, SCP2, SDHA, SDHAF1, SDHB, SDHD, SEPSECS, SH3TC2, SHANK3, SHPK, SLC16A2, SLC17A5 , SLC1A4, SLC25A1, SLC25A12, SLC25A22, SLC33A1, SLC35A2, SLC46A1, SLC6A8, SNIP1, SOX10, SPATA5, SPG11, SPG20, SPTAN1, SQSTM1, SSR4, STAMBP, STAT1, STXBP1, SUMF1, SURF1, SYNE1, TACO1, TAF2, TARS2, TM4SF20, TMEM126B, TMEM165, TMEM187, TMEM70, TRAPPC9, TREM2, TREX1, TRMT10A, TRMT5, TSC1, TSEN54, TUBB2A, TUBB4A, TUFM, TYMP, TYROBP, UBE2A, UPB1, VARS2, VCP, VPS11, WWOX, ZEB2, ZFYVE26, ZNF335
  • Molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis
  • To assist with decisions about treatment and management of individuals with leukodystrophy or leukoencephalopathy
  • Testing of at-risk relatives for specific known variant(s) previously identified in an affected family member
  • Prenatal diagnosis for known familial pathogenic variant(s) in at-risk pregnancies
  • Next-Gen Sequencing

Ordering

J853
6 weeks
2-5 mL Blood - Lavender Top Tube
Oral Rinse (30-40 mL)|Buccal Swabs

Billing

81404x5, 81405x6, 81406x5, 81401x1
Yes
Yes
* For price inquiries please email zebras@genedx.com

References

  1. Vanderver A et al. Leukodystrophy Overview. 2014 Feb 6. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2016. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK184570/.
  2. Bonkowsky et al. (2010) Neurology 75 (8):718-25 (PMID: 20660364)
  3. Heim P, Claussen M, Hoffmann B, Conzelmann E, Gärtner J, Harzer K, Hunneman DH, Köhler W, Kurlemann G, Kohlschütter A. Leukodystrophy incidence in Germany. Am J Med Genet. 1997;71:475–8 (PMID: 9286459).
  4. Zou et al. Whole exome sequencing: an effective and comprehensive genetic testing approach for leukodystrophy [abstract submitted] To be presented at the 2017 ASHG Annual Genetics Meeting, October 17-21, Orlando, FL.